Who Counts Our Elections?

Who are the local and state officials responsible for counting, canvassing, and certifying elections?

To answer this critical question, Bolts maps out each state’s system, including officials’ power, and their method of selection. Explore by clicking on a state, or scroll down to the list below.

This page was researched and written by Quinn Yeargain, who also wrote this article to introduce it. Information is gathered as of July 2022.

See also “Who Runs Our Elections,” a Bolts database covering election administration up until polls close. This page, “Who Counts Our Elections,” picks up where that one ends. They are complementary.

Who Counts Our Elections Placeholder
Who Counts Our Elections


ALABAMA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing BoardThe board canvasses and certifies statewide results.The board consists of the governor, secretary of state, and attorney general, all of whom are elected statewide in midterm years.
Secretary of StateThis official receives statewide results and aggregates them.They are elected statewide in midterm years.
County Appointing BoardsThese boards appoint precinct election officials for each precinct.These boards consist of the county judge of probate, circuit clerk, and sheriff.

Probate judges are elected to six-year terms (the next election is in 2024). Clerks are also elected to six-year terms. Sheriffs are elected to four-year terms in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Canvassing BoardThese boards count precinct results and transmit the results to the secretary of state.
The boards also consist of the judge of probate, circuit clerk, and sheriff.
Precinct Election OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at the precinct, count ballots and transmit ballots to the sheriff (who also sits on the canvassing board).These officials are appointed by each county’s appointing board.
County Absentee Counting BoardThese boards count absentee ballots and transmit results to county canvassing boards.The boards are appointed by each county’s appointing board.


ALASKA

What do they do?How are they selected?

Director of Elections
The director appoints local election supervisors; receives ballots from local election boards; transmits ballots to the ballot counting review board; receives the final results from the review board; and certifies winning candidates.The director is appointed by the lieutenant governor, a position that is elected in midterm years (e.g., 2022)
State Ballot Counting Review BoardThis board receives ballots from the state director, tallies results, and declares winning candidates to the director.This board has four members. Two are from the governor’s party and two are from the party receiving the second-highest number of votes in the most recent governor’s race. Members are appointed by the director of elections, from nominees put forth by the parties.
Local Election SupervisorThis official assists the state director with the administration of elections; appoints precinct-level election boards.This official is appointed by the state director.
Local Election BoardThese boards administer election day voting at each precinct, count ballots and transmit them to the director of elections.Each board is made up of three members, with at least one each from the two largest parties. The members are appointed by the local supervisor from a list of nominees put forth by the parties.
District Absentee Ballot Counting BoardThese boards count absentee ballots and transmit results to the director.Each board is made up of four members appointed by the local election supervisor. The two largest parties in the precinct should each have at least one member.
District Questioned Absentee Ballot Counting BoardThese boards count questioned absentee ballots and transmit results to the director of elections.Each board is made up of four members appointed by the local election supervisor. The two largest parties in the precinct should each have at least one member.


ARIZONA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county results, canvasses statewide results,  and certifies results. (Note: The governor, chief justice, and attorney general witness the certification.)The secretary of state is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Board of SupervisorsEach board receives results from the county recorder, canvasses results, and transmits results to the secretary of state.The board is the county legislative body and elected to four-year staggered terms.
County RecorderThe recorder supervises counting of ballots and transmits results to the county board of supervisors.The recorder is elected to four-year term, on the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).
Precinct Election BoardThese boards administer election day voting at precincts, count ballots, and transmit them to the county recorder.These boards consist of one inspector, one marshal, two judges, and as many clerks as needed. Members are appointed by each county board of supervisors, with some partisan balance requirements. The inspector, marshal, and judges must be evenly split between the two major parties; and countywide, there must be equal numbers of inspectors of both parties.
County Early Election BoardThese boards count early (mail and in-person early) ballots.Each board is appointed by the county board of supervisors with same partisan balance requirement.


ARKANSAS

What do they do?How are they selected?
Governor, or LegislatureThe governor certifies the result of presidential elections, and issues certificates to other winners. The legislature receives and certifies the results for state executive offices.The governor is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022). Lawmakers are elected in even-numbered years.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level canvasses, publishes a statewide count, and transmits it to the governor.They are elected to four-year terms in midterm elections.
State Canvassing BoardThis board canvasses presidential election results.The board consists of the governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, and attorney general. These officials are all elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
State Board of Election CommissionersThis board conducts audits (or  recounts) of state elections after each election cycle, which involves random sampling of county results.The board has seven members: The secretary of state, one designee each from the state Democratic Party, the state Republican Party, the Senate president, and the House Speaker, and two appointees of the governor. Of the latter two, one must be a county clerk and another must have served for three years as a county election commissioner.
County Board of Election CommissionersThese boards appoint polling site election officials, count precinct results from local officials, and transmit official results to the Secretary of State and legislature.These boards involve three members: Two are appointed by the party that controls the majority of statewide offices, and one appointed by another party.
County ClerkClerks supervise absentee (early in-person and mail) voting; receive mail ballots and conduct in-person early voting.Clerks are elected in the midterm cycle.
Polling Site Election Officials
These officials administer election day voting at precincts, count ballots and transmit the results to the county board of commissioners.These officials are appointed by the county board of election commissioners. A twist: the election commissioner from the minority party (see above) may appoint enough polling site election officials so that the majority party only has a bare majority among them.
County Election ClerksThese clerks count absentee ballots, and transmit the tally to the county board of election commissioners.Election clerks are appointed by the county board of election commissioners with the same partisan balance requirement as polling site election officials; there are multiple election clerks per county.

CALIFORNIA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives results from counties, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The official is elected statewide in midterm years.
County Clerk, or Registar of VotersSome counties have set up a registrar of voters; the county clerk fulfills the same functions in others without an independent registrar.

The relevant office receives ballots from precincts, compiles and publishes results.
Where they exist, registrars are appointed by their county’s board of supervisors. Clerks are usually elected, typically in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022). But some counties appoint clerks through their board of supervisors.
County Special Counting BoardThese boards count mail ballots.Boards are appointed by the registrar of voters or county clerk.
Precinct BoardThese boards administer election day voting at polling places, and then count ballots and report totals to the county.These boards are appointed by the registrar of voters or the county clerk. They must include at least one inspector and two clerks; parties may nominate candidates.

COLORADO

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of State
The secretary of state receives results from counties, develops a statewide canvass and certifies results.The secretary of state is elected statewide in midterm years.
County Clerk and RecorderThis office supervises the collection of ballots; manages the initial count of ballots by counting and election judges; and serves as a member of the county canvassing board.They are elected to four-year terms, typically in the midterm cycle, such as 2022. (Read Bolts‘s reporting on these local elections.)
County Canvassing BoardThese boards gather the aggregate results from each precinct, certify the countywide total, and report them to the secretary of state.Each board includes the county clerk and recorder. In addition, it includes members nominated in equal proportion by the major parties.
County Counting Judges
These officials count mail ballots and report results to the county clerk and recorders.
These judges are appointed by the county clerk and recorder; at least three must be appointed, no more than two of whom can be members of the same party.
County Election JudgesThese judges count paper ballots and tallies from voting machines and report them to the county clerk and recorder.These judges are appointed by the county clerk and recorder; half of whom must belong to each major party.
Provisional Ballot Counting Board (title may change)These boards count provisional ballots and report them to the county clerk and recorder.Members of the board are appointed by the county clerk and recorder.

CONNECTICUT

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing BoardThe board receives results for federal and legislative elections and certifies the results.The board consists of the treasurer, secretary of state, and comptroller.
State LegislatureThe legislature receives results for statewide offices and certifies the results.Lawmakers are elected to two-year terms in even-numbered years.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives results from municipalities and develops a statewide canvass.This official is elected statewide in midterm years.
Polling Place Moderator
Moderators are the chief election official for each polling place.They count mail ballots and transmit results to the secretary of state.
The moderator is appointed by municipal registrars of voters.
Polling Place OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at precincts, count ballots, and report totals to the secretary of state.These officials are polling place moderators, voting tabulator tenders, official checkers, unofficial checkers, and runners.

DELAWARE

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor canvasses election results for statewide officials and presidential electors, and certifies election results. (Note: The legislature fulfills the function of processing election results for the governor’s race.)The governor is elected statewide in presidential election years.
County Superior CourtThe court and its prothonotary receives and canvasses county election results; transmits results and certificates to the relevant state officials. (Namely: the governor for most statewide elections; the president of the Senate for the governor’s race; and the county prothonotary or clerk of the peace for legislative elections and most local elections.)All judges in Delaware are appointed by the governor, with consent of the Senate, to a 12-year term with a partisan balance requirement. The court appoints the prothonotary.
State Board of ElectionsThis board transmits absentee voting results to the county superior court,  counts provisional ballots,; and appoints precinct election officials.The board is made up of 11 members: the state election commissioner, who is appointed by the governor and only has tie-breaking vote, and ten other members who are also appointed by the governor. At least four of those ten must be from each of the two major parties.
County Panel of Absentee JudgesThese panels count absentee ballots and transmit results to the county superior court.
Panels are appointed by the county director of elections with a partisan balance requirement.
Precinct Election OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at each precinct and transmit results to the county superior court prothonotary.They are appointed by the state board of elections.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

What do they do?How are they selected?
District Board of ElectionsThe board appoints polling place officials; receives district-wide tabulations from the polling places, generates a district-wide canvass, and certifies the results.The board consists of three members appointed by the mayor to staggered three-year terms, with no two members of the same political party.
Polling Place OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting in precincts, count ballots, and report results and ballots to the district board.Polling place officials are appointed by the district’s board of elections; there is no requirement of partisan balance.

FLORIDA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Elections Canvassing CommissionThe commission compiles results from counties and certifies the results.The commission consists of the governor and two members of the cabinet; for that purpose, the governor selects two among the attorney general, chief financial officer, and commissioner of agriculture. (All these officials are elected in midterm elections.)
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives initial results from counties and prepares an unofficial tabulation of the results for public reporting.The secretary of state is appointed by the governor, who is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Supervisor of ElectionsThey supervise the collection of ballots; receive and process mail ballots; appoint  precinct election boards; and serve on county canvassing boards.They are elected for four-year terms in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024), with some notable exceptions like Duval County, the most populous in the state, which votes for elections supervisor the year before the presidential cycle (e.g., 2023).
County Canvassing BoardThese boards gather the aggregate results, count mail ballots, adjudicate provisional ballots, calculate the county canvass, certify the results, and report them to the secretary of state.These boards consist of the county supervisor of elections, a county court judge, and the chair of the elected board of county commissioners.
Precinct Election BoardThese boards administer election day voting at the precinct, count ballots, and report totals to the county supervisor.These boards include inspectors and clerks appointed by the county supervisor of elections; there is no party requirement, but no election board may be composed solely of members of one party.

GEORGIA

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor receives presidential election results from the secretary of state and certifies a winner.The governor is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives results from counties, canvasses votes and certifies the results—except in presidential elections, when the governor certifies.The secretary of state and governor are both elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Superintendent and County Board of Registrars,

or County Board of Elections
Counties have one of two sets of institutions that are in charge of election administration at the county level. (See our “Who runs Our Elections?” page for more information.)

Whichever institution or set of institutions is in charge appoints polling place boards; receives precinct tallies and canvasses them, including reviewing provisional ballots; and transmits results to the secretary of state. (Note:  If a county has no absentee ballot clerk, this board also oversees absentee voting and the count of mail-in ballots.)
Each of these different types of institutions has different sort of appointments, and they may differ county by county. See our “Who runs Our Elections?” page for more information about them.
County Absentee Ballot ClerkThis is an optional position. These clerks can oversee absentee ballots and early voting and transmit ballots to the county superintendent.Where the office exists, the clerk is appointed by the county commission.
Polling Place BoardThese boards administer election day voting at precincts, count ballots and report totals to the county.
Boards are appointed by the county superintendent; parties may nominate candidates and if so, the superintendent must ensure partisan balance.

HAWAI’I

What do they do?How are they selected?
Chief Elections OfficerThis statewide officer oversees the count of the ballots and certifies the results.The officer is appointed by the state elections commission.

The commission itself is made up of nine members: two each appointed by the Senate President and House Speaker, two each appointed by minority party members in the Senate and House, and one appointed by the other members of the commission as a chair.
County ClerkClerks administer voting service centers, mail voters ballots, count ballots at voting centers, and canvass results in county elections.The clerk is appointed by the county council.

IDAHO

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing Board
The board receives county-level results, generates statewide totals and certifies results.
It is composed of the secretary of state, controller, and treasurer. These officials are all elected to four-year terms in midterm election years.
County Canvassing BoardThese boards receive county results, canvass results, and transmit them to the county clerk.The board is identical to the county commission (three members elected to staggered four-year terms).
County ClerkThe clerk appoints polling place officials, receives absentee ballot requests and ballots (and tabulates them in counties with centralized counting procedures), transmits county-level results to county canvassing board for certification, sits on the county canvassing board as secretary, then transmits certified county canvass to the state canvassing board.Clerks are elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Polling Place OfficialsThey administer election day voting at the precinct, count ballots (including absentee ballots in counties without centralized counting) and report results to the county.These officials consist of two election judges and as many clerks as needed; they are appointed by the county clerk.

ILLINOIS

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor issues a certificate to the winning candidates, based on the results certified by the state board.The governor is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
State Board of ElectionsThe board receives county-level results, generates statewide totals, and certifies results.The four members are appointed by the governor, with two members from each major party. The governor is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County ClerkThese officials appoint early voting officials and supervise early voting; send out and receive absentee ballots; receive county results, canvass, and transmit results to the state board of elections.

A county-level exception: Peoria County has an Election Board fulfill this role (not its regular clerk).
Clerks are elected to four-year terms, in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Election Judges
They administer election day voting at the precinct level and count ballots; they report results to the county. (Note: Early voting procedures are administered by precinct early voting officials.)They are appointed by the county commission, and no more than three out of the five can be of the same party.

INDIANA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level results, generates statewide totals, and certifies results.The official is elected statewide in midterm election years.
County Election BoardThese boards appoint the precinct election board and provisional vote counters, tabulate results from elections, and generate the local canvass.Each board has three members: The circuit court clerk and two other members, each appointed by the circuit court clerk from the two major parties in each county upon nomination by the parties.
Circuit ClerkClerks receive absentee ballot requests, process them, receive ballots, count them, and send a county canvass to the secretary of state.Clerks are elected in counties to four-year terms, typically but not always in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Precinct Election BoardBoards administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and report ballots to the county.A precinct’s board is made up of members who play different roles, all of whom are appointed by the county election board, with a mechanism for some partisan balance.

Secretary of State
They count provisional ballots and transmit the tally to the county election board.
They are appointed by the county election board: There are two total per county, one from each of the parties with appointed members on the county board.

IOWA

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor certifies the winning candidates, based on the results released by the state board.The governor is elected to four-year terms in midterm election years (e.g., 2022).
State Canvassing BoardThe canvassing board receives county-level abstracts from the secretary of state, compiles results in an official abstract, and certifies the results. (The governor, who sits on the board, issues certificates to the winners.)This board mirrors the state executive council, which consists of the governor, secretary of state, treasurer, secretary of agriculture, and auditor. These are all statewide officials, elected in the midterm cycle.
Secretary of State (also called State Election Commissioner)The secretary of state receives county-level abstracts from the county auditors and transmits them to the state canvassing board, of which the official is also a member.This official is elected in the midterm cycle.
County Board of SupervisorsBoards receive results from the county auditor, canvass county results, and transmit them to the secretary of state.Board members are elected to staggered four-year terms in even-numbered years.
County Auditor (also called County Election Commissioner)An auditor appoints precinct election boards, as well as absentee ballot and special voters precinct boards; receives results from precinct election boards; transmits results to the county board of supervisors.Auditors are elected in counties to four-year terms, in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024)
Precinct Election BoardThese boards administer election day voting at a precinct, count ballots, and report results and ballots to the county auditor.
Boards have three to five members appointed by the county auditor; no more than a simple majority may be members of the same party.
County Absentee Ballot and Special Voters Precinct BoardThese boards receive and count absentee and provisional ballots and report results to the county auditor.Boards three to five members appointed by the county auditor; no more than a simple majority may be members of the same party.

KANSAS

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing BoardThe board drafts a final canvass of results based on the secretary of state’s tabulation of county results and certifies results.The board is made up of the governor, secretary of state, and attorney general. All these officials are elected in the midterm election cycle (e.g., 2022).
Secretary of StateThis official receives county-level results and tabulates preliminary statewide election results.The official is elected statewide in midterm election years.
County Canvassing BoardThese boards receive precinct-level results, tabulate a county-level canvass, and transmit results to the secretary of state.The county commission also serves as its canvassing board, and commissioners are elected to staggered four-year terms.
County Clerk, or County Board of ElectionsThese boards appoint members to precinct election boards and special election boards, and mail and receive absentee ballots.County clerk: In counties with a population under 130,000, clerks are elected in   the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).

County Board of Elections: In counties with a population exceeding 130,000, board members are appointed by the secretary of state.
Precinct Election BoardThese boards administer election day voting in polling places, count ballots, and report ballots to the county.Boards are appointed by the county clerk or the county board of elections. Its size is determined by county officials based on size of precinct; major parties make nominations and members are appointed, and no more than half of Judges and Clerks may be of the same party.
County Special Election BoardThese boards count absentee ballots and report ballots to the county.Board members, known as judges and clerks, are appointed by the county clerk or the county board of elections. Major parties make nominations, and no more than half of the members may be of the same party.

KENTUCKY

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of ElectionsThe board receives county-level results from the secretary of state, tabulates results and generates an official canvass, and certifies election results.The board is made up of the elected secretary of state (a non-voting member), six members appointed by the governor (three from each party, which submits nominees), as well as two members from each party who are appointed by the governor after being nominated by the Kentucky County Clerk’s Association.
County Board of ElectionsThese boards appoint precinct election officers and either appoint central ballot counting boards or else they count absentee ballots themselves. They also receive precinct-level election results from the county clerk and generate the county canvass, as well as transmit results to the secretary of state.Boards are composed of the county clerk, the county sheriff, and two members appointed by the state board of elections (one from a list of five names submitted by each county party).

The sheriff is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022), and the clerk is elected the following year (e.g., 2023).
County ClerkClerks receive absentee ballot requests and send out ballots; receive precinct-level results; and transmit results to the county board.Clerks are elected in counties in the state’s gubernatorial cycle (i.e. the year before the presidential cycle, such as 2023).
Central Ballot Counting BoardThis is an optional position: If created by the county, this board counts absentee ballots and transmits to the county board of elections.If the board exists, its three members are appointed by the county board, no more than two of whom can be members of the same party.
Precinct Election OfficersThey administer election day voting at precincts, count ballots, and report results to the county board of elections.Four officials are appointed by the county board of elections, with a partisan balance, based on nominations by county parties

LOUISIANA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level results, tabulates results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The official elected statewide in gubernatorial election years (e.g., 2019, 2023, and so on).
Parish Board of Election SupervisorsThese boards appoint parish board Commissioners or else counts absentee/early votes themselves. They also appoint precinct commissions by random process, tabulate a county-level canvass from precinct results, and transmit results to the secretary of state.Boards are made up of the registrar of voters, the clerk of court, the chair of each parish’s recognized political parties, and one member appointed by the governor.
Parish Clerk of CourtA clerk receives precinct results from precinct commissions, counts ballots in front of the parish board of election supervisors, and transmits results to the board.The clerk is elected in gubernatorial election years (i.e. the year before the presidential cycle, such as 2023).
Parish Registrar of VotersThis is an optional body: It can be created by the parish board of election supervisors to count absentee ballots.This board is appointed by the parish board of election supervisors.

Precinct Commission
This commission administers election day voting at precincts, counts ballots, and reports ballots to the parish.Commissioners are selected by the board of election supervisors in a random ball-drawing process from a list of people who have completed the commissioner training course.

MAINE

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor certifies the winners based on the results generated by the secretary of state.The governor is elected to a four-year term in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Secretary of StateThis official receives municipal election results from municipal clerks, and tabulates results to generate a statewide canvass.The official is elected by the legislature to two-year terms.
Municipal ClerkThe clerk receives requests for absentee ballots; distributes them; counts them.

In municipalities with more than one polling place: The municipal clerk receives results from wards, generates citywide totals, and transmits results to the secretary of state.

In municipalities with only one polling place: The municipal clerk administers election day voting at the precinct, counts ballots, and transmits results to the secretary of state.
Clerks are elected in some municipalities and in others appointed by the select board (the local equivalent of a city council).
Polling Place OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to the municipal clerk.The method of appointment varies by city, but the common practice is for the municipal governing authority to appoint a warden and election clerks.

MARYLAND

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor canvasses presidential election results, and certifies winning candidates.The governor is elected to a four-year term in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
State Board of CanvassersThis board receives county-level results, tabulates results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies results.This board consists of the secretary of state, treasurer, clerk of the court of appeals, comptroller, and attorney general. The latter two are directly elected; the first three are appointed by the governor, the legislature, and supreme court, respectively.
County Election BoardThe board appoints the county elections director; approves of the director’s appointment of election judges; locates early voting centers; canvasses absentee and provisional ballots; receives results from precincts and tabulates countywide total; transmits to the governor, state board, and circuit clerk.The five members are appointed by the governor (three of which are of the governor’s party, two of which are of the opposing party), chosen from a list of nominees from county parties. Terms start June after a gubernatorial election.
County Director of ElectionsThe director appoints election judges with election board approval.The director is appointed by the county election board.
Polling Place Election JudgesJudges administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to the county board.They are appointed by the county director of elections with county election board approval, with an equal number from two major parties.

MASSACHUSETTS

What do they do?How are they selected?
Governor and the Executive CouncilThey serve as the state’s canvassers: They receive tabulation of municipal vote totals from the secretary of state, tabulate results, generate a statewide canvass, and certify results.They consist of the governor (elected statewide in midterm cycles) and the executive council (made up of eight members who are elected to two-year terms from districts).
Secretary of the CommonwealthThis official receives the tabulation of municipal vote totals from municipal clerks and transmits results to the state canvassers.This official is elected statewide in the midterm cycle.
Municipal Clerk
Clerks distribute and receive absentee ballots and transmit them to Voting Precinct Election Officers. They also receive precinct level votes and transmit the results to the secretary of the commonwealth.Clerks are elected in some municipalities and appointed in others.
Voting Precinct Election OfficersThey administer election day voting at polls, count ballots, and transmit a tally to the municipal clerk. (Note: These election officers may be supplemented by precinct election supervisors, who observe the conduct of voting with no role in the management of the election.)They are appointed either by the mayor (in cities) or selectmen (in towns); the group of officials, as a whole, comes with a partisan balance requirement.

MICHIGAN

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing BoardThe board canvasses returns of the counties, develops an aggregate statement of the vote, and certifies results.The board has four members appointed by the governor to staggered four-year terms; each major party nominates three representatives to serve on the board every two years, and the governor picks one each.

In addition, the state director of elections (appointed by the secretary of state) serves as the non-voting secretary of the board of canvassers.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state supervises local election officials, issues regulations on how to count ballots, appoints the director of elections, and can order audits of precincts.The secretary of state is elected statewide in midterm years (e.g., 2022).
County Canvassing BoardThis board gathers the aggregate results according to precinct returns; prepares a statement of vote and reports it to the secretary of state.This board has four members appointed to staggered four-year terms; each major party nominates three representatives to serve on the canvassing board every two years, and the county’s board of county commissioners picks one each.
Municipal ClerkA clerk receives mail ballots,  transmits them to the precinct board, decides which provisional ballots are valid, and reports results to the county canvassing board.They are appointed (by mayor or council) or elected (to terms of differing lengths in different years). There is no consistent pattern between jurisdictions.
Precinct Board of Election InspectorsInspectors administer election day voting at precincts, count  ballots, report results to the city clerk, and may challenge electors.Members are appointed by the city board of election commissioners; the precinct board consists of at least three members, at least one of whom must be from each major party, and a roughly equal number of members from both parties.

Who is on the city board of election commissioners? In cities, election commissioner boards  consist of the city clerk, city attorney, and city assessor; in townships, boards include the supervisor, clerk, and township treasurer; in villages, the president, clerk, and treasurer form the board.

MINNESOTA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing BoardThe board receives results from the secretary of state, tabulates state level results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The board consists of the secretary of state, as well as two supreme court justices and two district court judges selected by the secretary of state.
Secretary of StateThis official receives county-level results, serves on state canvassing board, and issues certificate to winning candidates.The secretary of state is selected to four-year terms in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Canvassing BoardThese boards receive results from the county auditor, tabulate county level results, and transmit them to the secretary of state.A board consists of the county auditor, the court administrator of the district court, the mayor or chair of the town board of the county’s most populous municipality, and two members appointed by the county canvassing board.
County Auditor, or

County Elections Manager
The auditor sends out and receives absentee ballots, receives results from election boards, and transmits them to the county canvassing board.

Some counties have abolished the elected auditor, and replaced the office with an appointed manager.
Where this office exists, an auditor is elected for four-year terms in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).

Managers are appointed by the county board.
Precinct Election BoardThese boards administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to a county auditor.Boards have at least four judges, no more than half of whom may be members of the same party, appointed by municipal governing authority based on nominations made by local parties.
County Ballot BoardThese boards receive absentee ballots from the county auditor, adjudicate and tabulate them, and transmit results to the auditor.Boards are appointed by the county based on local rules.

MISSISSIPPI

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of State, or

Legislature, or

State Board of Election Commissioners
For federal elections and constitutional  amendments: The secretary of state receives county level results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies winners. In addition, the governor issues certificates to the winning candidates in federal elections.

For supreme court elections and other judicial races: The role of canvassing and certifying results is fulfilled by the state board of election commissioners.

For elections for state officers and the legislature: The role of canvassing and certifying results is fulfilled by the legislature.
The governor and the secretary of state are each elected statewide in gubernatorial election years (e.g., 2019, 2023, etc.).
The state board consists of the governor, secretary of state, and attorney general (elected statewide on a four-year cycle, e.g., 2019, 2023, etc.).

Legislators are elected to four-year terms on a four year cycle (e.g., 2019, 2023, etc.).
County Election CommissionThis commission appoints poll managers and resolution boards, receives precinct results from the circuit court clerk, tabulates a county canvass, and transmits results to the secretary of state.A commission has five members, one popularly elected from each board-of-supervisors district (all counties have five districts) for a four-year term. In three out of five districts, the election is on presidential cycles, such as 2024; in two out of five districts, the election is in the state’s gubernatorial years, such as 2023.
Registrar of Elections (Circuit Court Clerk)This official receives requests for absentee ballots, sends them out, receives results from poll managers, and transmits results to the county election commission.The circuit court clerk fulfills the role of a registrar; a clerk is elected in counties to four-year terms during the state’s gubernatorial cycles (i.e. the year before the presidential cycle, such as 2023).
Precinct Poll ManagersThey administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to the county election commission.Three managers are appointed by the county election commission but cannot be members of the same party.
County Resolution BoardThis board receives absentee ballots, reviews and counts them, transmits results to the county election commission.They are appointed by the election commission; there must be at least three (but an odd number).

MISSOURI

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of CanvassersThis board receives county-level results, generates statewide canvass, and certifies results.This board consists of the secretary of state and two judges (of any court in the state) appointed by the secretary of state.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state sits on the state board and appoints the other members; receives county-level results; transmits the tally to the state board; and issues certificates to winning candidates.This official is elected in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).
County Verification BoardThis board receives precinct level results, tabulates the county canvass, and transmits results to the secretary of state.There are two options:

(1) In counties that have a board of election commissioners, the election commission doubles as the verification board. This board has four members appointed by the governor, two from each major party, with terms that vary by county.

(2) In counties without a board of election commissioners, the verification board consists of the county clerk (an office elected to four-year terms on the midterm cycle) and at least two verification judges (one from each major party, appointed from a list of nominees generated by the party).
Precinct Election JudgesThey administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to the election commission or county clerk.They are appointed by the county clerk or board of election commissioners. There must be at least two judges from each major party (appointed from nominees generated by local parties in counties without election commissions). One judge from each party is designated a supervisory judge.
County Absentee Ballot Election JudgesThey count absentee ballots and transmit results to the election commission or county clerk.Judges are appointed by the county clerk or election commissioners; there are an equal number from each major party.
County Bipartisan Absentee TeamsThese officials provide absentee ballots to voters.In counties without election commissioners, they are appointed by the county clerk. There must be an equal number of team members from each party; these officials do not exist in counties with election commissioners.

MONTANA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Board of State CanvassersThe board receives county-level results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies results. (Note: The governor issues commissions to the winning candidates on the basis of the certified results.)The board consists of the state auditor, superintendent of public instruction, and attorney general, with the secretary of state serving as the board’s non-voting secretary. All these offices are elected in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).
Board of County CanvassersThe board generates a county canvass and transmits results to the board of state canvassers.A county’s regular board (the elected county commission) also serves as the board of county canvassers.
County Clerk and RecorderThese officials serve as the county’s chief election official and supervise county-level registration.They are elected or appointed in counties to four-year terms during the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Counting Board(s)These boards count ballots from precincts, and transmit the tally to the board of county commissioners.These boards are comprised of a subset of precinct election judges who are appointed by county commissioners.
Precinct Election JudgesThe judges administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to the county clerk and recorder.At least three are appointed by the county commission for each precinct, one of whom serves as chief judge; they are appointed from a list of nominees from local parties, at least one judge of each major party.
County Absentee Ballot BoardThis board is optional: The board receives absentee ballot applications and mails out ballots; it also counts absentee ballots and transmits results to the board of county canvassers.This board is optional: The board must total at least two members, one from each major party; parties nominate potential members, and the county clerk and Recorder then makes appointments.

NEBRASKA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Board of State CanvassersThe board receives county-level results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies the winners by approving the results. (The secretary of state then issues a certificate, signed by the governor, to the winners.)The board consists of the governor, secretary of state, auditor of public accounts, treasurer, and attorney general. They are all elected to four-year terms in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022), as is the governor.
County Canvassing BoardThe board generates a county canvass and transmits results to the board of state canvassers.The board consists of the county clerk or election commissioner, and at least two registered voters appointed by the clerk or commissioner, with an equal balance between parties.
County clerk, or election commissionerThe county clerk or election commissioner sits on the county canvassing board, receives and transmits ballots to that board; and determines the validity of provisional ballots.For more information on whether a county has a clerk or commissioner, and how they are selected, see our “Who Runs Our Elections” page.
County Resolution BoardThis board considers and resolves ballots that have been rejected by vote counting devices.The county clerk or the election commissioner (see above) appoints at least two members to the board. There must be an equal balance between party members.
County Early Voting Counting BoardThis board counts early and absentee ballots, and reports results to the commissioner or clerk.The county clerk or election commissioner (see above) appoints at least two members to the board. There must be an equal balance between party members.
District InspectorThis position is optional: Inspectors supervise precincts’ compliance with election laws and oversee multiple polling locations.This position is optional: An inspector is appointed by the county clerk or election commissioner (see above).
Precinct InspectorThis position exists only in counties with election commissioners: Inspectors supervise precinct compliance with election laws.

Commissioners exist in counties above 100,000 residents, and in counties between 20,000 and 100,000 if the county board chooses to create one.
Where they exist, inspectors are appointed by the election commissioner.
Precinct Receiving BoardThe board administers election day voting at a polling place, and delivers ballots and tabulators to the clerk or commissioner.The county clerk or election commissioner (see above) appoints members, with equal balance between parties.

NEVADA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Supreme CourtIt generates a statewide canvass and certifies the results. (The governor issues a certificate to the winning candidates.)Justices are elected statewide to staggered six-year terms.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level results, counts votes, generates a statewide canvass and presents results to the state supreme court.The official is elected statewide in midterm years.
Board of County CommissionersThe board generates a county canvass and transmits results to the secretary of state.Members are elected to staggered four-year terms
Registrar of Voters,

or County Clerk
This official receives results from precinct officials, and transfers them to the board of county commissioners.

In Clark and Washoe counties (the two most populous counties), this duty goes to a registrar of voters; everywhere else, it goes to the county clerk.
A registrar is appointed by the elected county commissioners.

Clerks are elected in counties to four-year terms, in the midterm cycle.
County Mail Ballot Counting BoardThe board counts mail ballots and transmits results to the county clerk or registrar of voters.Members are appointed by the county clerk or registrar of voters; at least one member must be of a different party than the rest.
Precinct Election/Counting BoardThe board administers election day voting at polling places, counts ballots, and transmits results to the county clerk or registrar of voters.Members are appointed by the county clerk or registrar of voters; at least one member must be of a different party than the rest.

NEW HAMPSHIRE

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor issues certificates to winning candidates for president and Congress.The governor is elected to two-year terms in even-numbered years.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives local results, generates a statewide canvass, and issues certificates to winning candidates for state legislature and county offices.The secretary of state is elected by the legislature to a two-year term.
City/Town/Ward ClerkIn towns: The town clerk receives absentee ballots and counts all absentee and in-person votes at the polling place and transmits the town canvass to the secretary of state.

In cities: The city clerk transmits absentee ballots to ward moderators for counting alongside the election day votes.
Clerks are usually elected. In most cities, the clerk is elected by the city council, but the ward clerks are elected by voters in the wards. In most towns, the clerk is elected to one- or three-year terms.
Town/Ward ModeratorIn towns: The town moderator administers election day voting at polling places, can appoint assistant moderators and assistant clerks to staff additional polling places if necessary, and counts absentee ballots.

In cities: The ward moderator administers election day voting at polling place and can appoint additional officers at the polling place.
Moderators are elected either by town voters (in towns) or by ward voters (in cities).

NEW JERSEY

What do they do?How are they selected?
Board of State CanvassersThe board receives county-level results from the secretary of state, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies the results.The board consists of the governor (who chairs the board) and four members of the legislature appointed by the governor, no two of whom can be members of the same party.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level results and distributes to them to the board of state canvassers.This official is appointed by the governor.
County Board of Elections/Board of County CanvassersThe county boards appoint district election boards, receive district-level results from the county clerk, generate a countywide canvass, and transmit the results to the secretary of state.A board has four members; there must be two members each from two parties.
Election District BoardThe district boards administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to the county.The members are appointed by the county board of elections; there must be an equal balance between the two major parties.

NEW MEXICO

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing BoardThe board receives a report of canvass from the secretary of state, approves the canvass and generates statewide results, and certifies election results.This board consists of the governor, secretary of state, and chief justice. The first two are elected statewide in the midterm cycle, and the latter is elected or appointed onto the court as a justice and then selected as chief by the justices.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level results and prepares a report of canvass for the state canvassing board.The secretary of state is elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Canvassing BoardThe board receives the report of canvass from the county clerk, approves the canvass and generates countywide results, and transmits the results to the secretary of state.By default, a county commission is also the county’s canvassing board; however, counties can designate the registration board as the canvassing board.
County ClerkThe county clerk appoints the precinct-level boards, receives and distributes absentee ballot requests, and then receives absentee ballots and transmits them to the absentee ballot precinct board for counting; the clerk also receives results from each of those boards and transmits them to the county board.Clerks are elected to four-year terms during the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).
Precinct Election BoardThis board administers election day voting at a polling place, counts ballots, and transmits results to the county.Members are appointed by the county clerk. The officials consist of a presiding judge, two election judges, and election clerks; no more than two-thirds of judges can be from the same party.
County Absentee Ballot Precinct BoardThis board counts absentee ballots and transmits the tally to the county board.Members are appointed by the county clerk.

NEW YORK

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of Elections (also the State Board of Canvassers)The board receives county-level results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The board has four members appointed by the governor; one each from nominees of two major parties, one each from joint recommendation of state legislative leaders of two major parties.
County Board of Elections/County Board of CanvassersThese boards appoint election district officials; distribute, receive, and count absentee ballots; serve as county board of canvassers and receive results from election districts; and generate a countywide canvass and transmit the results to the state board of elections.Parties appoint commissioners in equal amounts, but the number of commissioners varies by county. (Note: New York City has only one Board of Elections, despite having five counties.)
Election District OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots, and transmit results to the county.These officials are appointed by the county board of elections. They are made up of four inspectors and two clerks divided between major parties (local parties nominate candidates); the board may also appoint two coordinators to assist the other election district officials.

NORTH CAROLINA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of ElectionsThe board receives county abstracts, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The state board is appointed by the governor (who is elected on the presidential cycle), who selects from candidates nominated by the two major parties. The board has five members serving four-year terms, and no more than three of the five can be members of the same party.
County Board of ElectionsA county board appoints precinct election officials, receives absentee ballots and counts them, receives results from precinct election officials, develops a county abstract of votes, and transmits results to the state board of elections.A county board also has five members appointed in the summer of odd-numbered years. Four are appointed by the state board of elections (two from each party) to two-year terms, and the fifth is appointed by the governor.
Precinct Election OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots, and transmit results to the county.These officials are appointed by the county board of elections; the parties nominate candidates for these roles, and county boards are encouraged to not pick judges of the same party.

NORTH DAKOTA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing BoardThe board receives canvass reports from the secretary of state, generates a state canvass, and certifies results.The board consists of the clerk of the state supreme court, the secretary of state, the treasurer, and the chair of (or a representative from) each major party.

The clerk is appointed by the supreme court, the secretary of state is elected in the midterm cycle, and the treasurer is elected in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives canvass reports from county auditors and transmits them to the state canvassing board.This official is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Canvassing BoardThe board receives results from the county auditor and develops a countywide canvass.These boards consist of the county recorder, the county auditor, the chair of the board of county commissioners, and a representative from each major party. (Auditors and recorders are either appointed or elected, depending on the county.)
County AuditorThe auditor appoints poll clerks as well as the absentee ballot precinct election board and early voting precinct election board. The auditor also receives results from all boards, transmits results to the county canvassing board, and transmits the county canvass to the secretary of state.Auditors are elected by counties in the midterm cycle (e.g., in 2022), or appointed by the county commission.
Precinct Election BoardThis board administers election day voting at the polling place, counts ballots, and transmits results to the county auditor.This board consists of:

—An election inspector appointed either by the local municipality’s governing authority or, if the precinct is outside municipal boundaries, the county auditor with approval of the county commission

—At least two election judges appointed by the local major political parties

—At least two poll clerks appointed by the county auditor with approval of the county commission.

County Absentee Ballot Precinct Election Board
This board counts absentee ballots.Board members are appointed by the county auditor. They include election judges, with an equal number from each major party, as well as an independent inspector.
County Early Voting Precinct Election BoardThis board counts early voting ballots.Board members are appointed by the county auditor. They include election judges, with an equal number from each major party, as well as an independent inspector.

OHIO

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level results, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The secretary of state is elected statewide to four-year terms in midterm election years. (Read Bolts‘s reporting on the 2022 election.)
County Board of ElectionsThis board appoints precinct election officials, receives absentee ballots and decides how they are counted (either by the board itself or by local precinct officials); the board also receives results from precinct officials, develops a county-wide canvass, and transmits results to the secretary of state.The board is made up of four members, two from each party, appointed by the secretary of state to four-year terms in March of odd-numbered years (e.g., two appointments in March 2021 and two in March 2023).
Precinct Election OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots (including absentee ballots if tasked to do so by the county board), and transmit results to the county board.
At least four officials are appointed by the county board of elections by majority vote, with no more than half being members of the same party.

OKLAHOMA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of ElectionsThis board receives county-level results, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The board includes three members and two alternate members, all appointed by the governor from a list of major party nominees. Two of three regular members are from one party, and the alternates are from two different parties.
County Election BoardThis board appoints the precinct election board, decides how absentee ballots are validated (either by the board itself or by appointing a special absentee voting board), receives results from precinct election boards, develops a countywide canvass, and transmits results to the state board.Boards are made up of three members appointed by the state election board—one member from each major party (based on nominations by the county parties), plus a county board secretary.
Precinct Election BoardThis board administers election day voting at a polling place, counts ballots, and transmits results to the county board of elections.There are at least three members (they serve in the roles of inspector, judge, clerk), with a requirement that the two major parties have at least one official.
County Special Absentee Voting BoardThis is an optional body: When created, this board is charged with determining whether absentee ballots were lawfully cast.This is an optional body: This board has two members, appointed by the county board of elections from a list of nominees put forth by parties.

OREGON

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county-level results, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The secretary of state is elected in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).

County Clerk
A clerk receives ballots, counts them, prepares a countywide canvass, and transmits results to the secretary of state.Clerks are elected in most counties to four-year terms in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022); in some counties the clerk is appointed by the board of county commissioners.

PENNSYLVANIA

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor receives presidential election results from the secretary of the commonwealth and issues certificates to the winning candidate.The governor is elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Secretary of the CommonwealthThe secretary receives county-level results, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies results.This official is appointed by the governor.
County Board of ElectionsThis board receives and tabulates absentee ballots; receives results from district election boards; generates a countywide canvass; and transmits results to the secretary of the commonwealth.In most counties: The county’s three-member regular county commission is coterminous with its county board of election. (A wrinkle: If board members are themselves a candidate for election in a given cycle, the elected president judge of the county court of common pleas appoints a replacement for them.)

In home rule counties (Allegheny, Delaware, Erie, Lackawanna, Lehigh, Luzerne, Northampton, and Philadelphia), the pattern is different since counties adopt other government structures than a county commission. As a result, the board of elections is drawn in different ways from the county’s legislative body or else elected directly. For instance, the board of elections and registration in Allegheny County is made up of the county executive and the two at-large city council members; in Philadelphia, they are elected in mayoral election years (e.g. 2023).
District Election BoardThis board administers election day voting at a polling place, counts ballots, and transmits results to the county board.Each board consists of three members (a judge and two inspectors) who are elected by voters in each precinct (in Pennsylvania called “district”). The top two candidates for inspector of different parties both serve. Vacancies are common due to no one running for a seat; in this case, the county court appoints replacements.

RHODE ISLAND

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of ElectionsThe board tabulates absentee ballots, receives municipal election results, generates a statewide canvass, and certifies results.The board has seven members appointed by the governor (who is elected in the midterm cycle) to staggered nine-year terms.
Municipal Bipartisan Canvassing AuthorityThis body appoints district election officials, can appoint bipartisan mail ballot supervisors, receives results from district election officials, generates a municipal canvass, and transmits results to the state board.This body has three members appointed by the municipal legislative body, based on nominations by local parties; no more than two can be members of the same party.
District Election OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots, and transmit results to the bipartisan canvassing authority.These officials include: one warden (or moderator), one clerk, and two supervisors. They are appointed by the bipartisan canvassing authority from nominees submitted by local parties. (Warden and clerk must be from different parties, and supervisors must be from different parties).
Municipal Bipartisan Mail Ballot SupervisorsThis is an optional body: Where they exist, they supervise casting and receipt of mail ballots.This is an optional body: There are two members, appointed by the bipartisan canvassing authority from nominees submitted by local parties. They must be of different parties.

SOUTH CAROLINA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Election CommissionThis body receives county-level results, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies results.This body has five members appointed by the governor to staggered four-year terms. (The governor is elected on the midterm cycle.) At least one member must be from the majority party in the legislature, and one from the minority party.
County Board of Voter Registration and ElectionsThis body appoints polling place managers and receives results from them, receives and tabulates absentee ballots, generates a countywide canvass, and transmits results to the state election commission.The governor appoints members in each county, on the recommendation of legislators from the county. There are five to nine members per board, with each major party represented by at least one member. The members are appointed to four-year terms, staggered every two years.
Polling Place ManagersThe managers administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots, and transmit results to the county board of voter registration and elections.They are appointed by the county board of voter registration and elections.

SOUTH DAKOTA

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor issues certificates of election to winning candidates.The governor is elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
State Board of CanvassersThe board receives county-level results and develops a statewide canvass.The board consists of the governor, secretary of state, and the chief justice of the supreme court. The first two are elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022), while the latter is appointed and/or elected.
County Canvassing BoardThe board receives an unofficial tabulation of votes from county auditors, develops a countywide canvass, and transmits results to the state board.The elected county commission doubles as the county’s canvassing board.
County AuditorAuditors appoint local boards (below), receive results from precincts, generate an unofficial tabulation, and transmit to the county board.Auditors are elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Precinct Election BoardThese boards administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots (including absentee ballots if no absentee ballot counting board is created), and transmit results to the county board of elections.The board has three members, appointed by the auditor from lists prepared by major parties.
Precinct Counting BoardIn select precincts: They count ballots.
The board has three members, appointed by the auditor from lists prepared by the major parties.
County Absentee Ballot Counting BoardThis is an optional body: They count absentee ballots.This is an optional body: The board has three members, appointed by the auditor from lists prepared by major parties.

TENNESSEE

What do they do?How are they selected?
Governor The governor issues certificates of election to winning candidates.The governor is elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
State Canvassing BoardThe board develops a statewide canvass.The board consists of the governor, the secretary of state, and the attorney general.

These three officials have different selection procedures: The governor is elected in the midterm cycle; the secretary of state is elected by the legislature to a four-year term (the selection typically happens in the year after the presidential election); the attorney general is appointed by the supreme court to an eight-year term.
County Election CommissionThe commission appoints precinct election officials and inspectors, and the central absentee ballot counting board; receives absentee ballots and transmits them to the counting board; and receives results from precinct election officials, develops a countywide canvass and transmits to the secretary of state.The state election commission appoints five members. Three of the five are members of the party with a majority in the legislature, two are members of the party in the minority.
Precinct Election OfficialsThey administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots, and transmit results to the county board of elections.They are appointed by the county election commission from nominees put forth by local parties.
Precinct InspectorsInspectors supervise compliance with election laws and assist the election commission in conducting inspections of elections.They are appointed by the county election commission from nominees put forth by local parties. No more than half of all county precinct inspectors can be of the same party.
County Central Absentee Ballot Counting BoardThis board counts absentee ballots.Members are appointed by the county election commission.

TEXAS

What do they do?How are they selected?
Governor,

or Legislature
The governor canvasses results for federal and state offices, and certifies winning candidates.

Note: For elections for governor and lieutenant governor, this role is fulfilled by the legislature. Local elections are handled at the county level by the commissioners court.
The governor is elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state prepares tabulation of votes for the governor and legislature.The secretary of state is appointed by the governor.
County Commissioners CourtThe body appoints the precinct presiding judge and the alternate, canvasses precinct election results, and resolves any challenges.This is the name of the Texas-equivalent of the county commission. Members are elected to staggered four-year terms.
County ClerkThe clerk canvasses county results and transmits a county canvass to the secretary of state.Clerks are elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Precinct Election OfficialsThey administer election day voting at a polling place, count ballots, and transmit results to the county clerk.A presiding judge and alternate are appointed by the commissioners court after local parties nominate candidates. (The presiding judge must be the nominee of the party whose candidate for governor received the most votes in the precinct in the previous election; the alternate, from the party with the second most votes.) The presiding judge appoints precinct clerks.

UTAH

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of CanvassersThe board generates a state canvass and transmits final results to the lieutenant governor.It consists of the auditor, treasurer, and attorney general. All three are elected statewide in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).
Lieutenant GovernorThe lieutenant governor receives county canvasses, transmits them to the state board of canvassers, and issues certificates to winning candidates.The lieutenant governor is elected on a team ticket with the governor in the presidential cycle (e.g., 2024).
County Board of CanvassersThe board canvasses county results and transmits a county canvass to the lieutenant governor.A county’s regular commission or council doubles as its board of canvassers. Members are elected to staggered four-year terms.
County ClerkThe clerk appoints precinct poll workers and receives votes from polling places.Clerks are elected in the presidential cycle (e.g. 2024).
Polling Place WorkersThey administer election day voting at polling places, count ballots, and transmit results to the county clerk.They are appointed by the county clerk from nominees put forth by parties. Two-thirds must be from the party receiving the most votes for statewide offices and one-third from the party receiving the second most votes.

VERMONT

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Canvassing CommitteeThe committee receives tally sheets from polling places, canvasses statewide results and issues certificates.The committee consists of the secretary of state, who is elected to two-year terms in even-numbered years, and the chair of each major party.
Polling Place OfficialsThese officials administer election day voting at a polling place, and then count ballots and transmit results to the secretary of state.Members of the Board of Civil Authority (made up of municipal officials like aldermen, clerks, and justices) serve as polling place officials.

In municipalities with more than one polling place, the board appoints a presiding officer for each location; in all municipalities, the board can appoint assistant election officers, with a partisan balance “as far as possible.”

VIRGINIA

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Board of ElectionsThe board receives city and county canvasses from electoral boards, develops a statewide canvass.This board has five members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate. Three members are from the party winning most votes for governor, and two members from the party receiving second-most votes. They are drawn from list of party nominees.

The governor is elected the year after a presidential election; lawmakers are elected in odd years.
City/County Electoral BoardThis board appoints precinct election officers; appoints central absentee voter precinct officials; receives votes from precincts; develops a county canvass and transmits to state board.Members are appointed in each county/independent city by the chief judge of the applicable judicial circuit (the chief judge is elected by legislature).
Registrar of VotersThe registrar receives requests for absentee ballots and cast ballots; transmits to the central absentee voter precinct.They are appointed by the local electoral board.
Precinct Election OfficialsThey administer election day voting at polling places; count ballots; and transmit results to the county.They are appointed by the local electoral board, with a partisan balance requirement “if practicable.”

County Central Absentee Voter Precinct Officers
They count absentee ballots.They are appointed by the local electoral board, with a partisan balance requirement “if practicable.”

WASHINGTON

What do they do?How are they selected?
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county and precinct canvasses from county auditors; develops a statewide canvass; certifies election results.The secretary of state is elected statewide on the presidential cycle (e.g. 2024).
County Canvassing BoardThis board canvasses county results.It consists of the county auditor, prosecuting attorney, and chair of the county legislative body.

County Auditor,

or Elections Director
An auditor sends and receives mail ballots; conducts initial tabulation of ballots; transmits results to the county canvassing board; transmits precinct and county canvasses to the secretary of state.

King County (Seattle) has transferred this role to a separate elections director.
Auditors are elected by counties to four-year terms, usually on the midterm cycle. The elections director of King County is elected, the year after the midterm cycle (e.g. 2023).

WEST VIRGINIA

What do they do?How are they selected?
Governor,

or Legislature
The relevant institution receives the county canvass and declares a winner.

The governor declares winners for federal offices, and some judicial officials; the legislature for state offices.
The governor is elected to four-year terms in presidential election years. Lawmakers are elected to two-year terms.
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county canvasses and transmits them to the governor or to the Speaker of the House of Delegates.The secretary of state is elected to four-year terms in presidential election years.
County Commission/County Board of CanvassersThese bodies appoint poll clerks and election commissioners and transmit absentee ballots to them, canvass results and transmit them to the secretary of state.These bodies are elected to staggered six-year terms.
County ClerkA clerk receives results from precincts and transmits them to the county board of canvassers.Clerks are elected at the county level to six-year terms (next elections are in 2022).
Poll Clerks and Election CommissionersThese officials administer election day voting at precincts, count ballots, including mail ballots, and report results to the county clerk.These officials are appointed by the board of county commissioners from nominees put forth by major parties.

WISCONSIN

What do they do?How are they selected?
State Elections CommissionThe commission receives results from the county, develops a statewide canvass, and certifies the results.It has six members. The legislature’s four leaders each appoint one member. The governor must appoint two others who previously served as county or municipal clerks (the governor acts upon nominations of legislative leaders).
County Board of CanvassersThe board receives tallies for non-municipal elections, develops a countywide total and certifies results, and reports to the election commission.This board consists of the county clerk (who is elected on the presidential cycle), plus two voters appointed by the county clerk, one from each party.

Note: In Milwaukee County, the County Election Commission also serves as the canvassing board.
Municipal ClerkThe clerk receives ballots and tallies from precinct inspectors and transmits them to the municipal or county board of canvassers, depending on the type of election. The clerk also receives mail ballots and transmits them to the relevant body for counting. It also adjudicates provisional ballots.They are elected or appointed (by mayor, mayor with council’s approval, or by the council). In Milwaukee, this role is filled by the city’s board of election.
Precinct Inspectors (or Election Inspectors)They administer election day voting at the precinct and transmit ballots and a tally to the municipal clerk.The mayor or president/chairperson of a municipality nominates candidates for inspector, and the city council or governing body appoints them. There are at least seven inspectors per precinct, all of whom must be affiliated with one of the two major parties; the party that received the most votes in the most recent election for governor or president in the ward has one more inspector.
Municipal Board of Absentee Ballot CanvassersThis is an optional body: If created, it counts mail ballots and reports results to the municipal clerk.This is an optional body: If created, it consists of the municipal clerk (or their representative), and two voters appointed by the clerk.

Municipal Board of Canvassers
This board is only relevant for municipal and local elections: This board receives ballots and tallies for municipal elections, develops a citywide total, and certifies the results.The exact modalities depend on the place.

In municipalities with one ward/polling place: The election inspectors double as the municipal board of canvassers. Alternatively, the municipal clerk may form a separate board consisting of the clerk, the chief election inspector, and one other inspector appointed by the clerk.

In municipalities with more than one ward/polling place: This board consists of the municipal clerk and two voters appointed by the clerk to two-year terms beginning in January of even-numbered years.

In the city of Milwaukee: The Milwaukee Election Commission doubles as its board of canvassers. (Note: This city board has three members appointed by Milwaukee County’s election commission; more here.)

WYOMING

What do they do?How are they selected?
GovernorThe governor issues certificates to winning candidates.The governor is elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
State Canvassing BoardThe board receives statewide tabulation from the secretary of state and finalizes a statewide canvass.It consists of the governor, secretary of state, auditor, and treasurer. All these positions are elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Secretary of StateThe secretary of state receives county results from clerks, develops statewide tabulation, and transmits to the state canvassing board.The secretary of state is elected statewide in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
County Canvassing BoardThis board receives countywide tabulation from the county clerk and finalizes a countywide canvass.The board consists of the county clerk and two registered voters of different parties appointed by the clerk.
County ClerkThe clerk appoints election judges and counting boards (if applicable); delivers absentee ballots to the counting board or election judges; receives precinct election results; develops countywide tabulation and transmits to the county canvassing board; transmits a final county canvass to the secretary of state.A clerk is elected in the midterm cycle (e.g., 2022).
Precinct Election JudgesJudges administer election day voting at the precinct, count ballots and mail ballots (if no absentee ballot counting board), and report results to the county clerk.Judges are appointed by the county clerk from lists of nominees put forth by local parties; at least three judges are appointed with partisan balance “as nearly equal as possible.”
Precinct Counting BoardIn precincts of requisite size: They count ballots.In precincts of requisite size: These boards have seven members, which include the county clerk (or a deputy) and three members of each major party, appointed by the clerk from lists of nominees.
County Absentee Ballot Counting BoardOptional: This board can be set up by the county commission. Where it exists, they count absentee ballots.This is an optional body: Members are appointed by the county clerk from lists of nominees put forth by local parties, with some partisan balance.